Chairman Duncan on the hearing: “As the situation in Venezuela continues to deteriorate, we must not forget that various state and criminal actors are actively undermining U.S. and international efforts to restore Venezuelan democracy and rule of law. Their influence props up the Maduro dictatorship, provides lifelines for its survival, and enables a culture of corruption and narcotrafficking to thrive while the Venezuelan people suffer. The U.S. and many other countries have enacted strong measures against the Maduro regime. However, the presence of Cuba, Russia, China, Iran, and criminal networks undercut U.S. and international efforts to pressure the Venezuelan government. This hearing will examine the economic, military, and political influence of these state and non-state actors and consider how the U.S. and our international partners can counter these underlying challenges.”

Opening Statements


R. Evan Ellis, Ph.D.
Senior Associate
Americas Program
Center for Strategic and International Studies
[full text of statement]
[truth in testimony form]

Mr. Francisco Toro
Executive Editor
Caracas Chronicles
[full text of statement]
[truth in testimony form]

Harold Trinkunas, Ph.D.
Senior Research Scholar and Associate Director for Research
Center for International Security and Cooperation
Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies
Stanford University
[full text of statement]
[truth in testimony form]


Hearing transcript (PDF)